Max Gerber] I am often asked whether I agree with the new group selectionists, and the questioners are always surprised when I say I do not. After all, group selection sounds like a reasonable extension of evolutionary theory and a plausible explanation of the social nature of humans. Also, the group selectionists tend to declare victory, and write as if their theory has already superseded a narrow, reductionist dogma that selection acts only at the level of genes. In this essay, I'll explain why I think that this reasonableness is an illusion.
The Theory of Citizen Participation Introduction Citizen participation is a process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and has long been a component of the democratic decision-making process.
The roots of citizen participation can be traced to ancient Greece and Colonial New England. Before the s, governmental processes and procedures were designed to facilitate "external" participation.
Public involvement is means to ensure that citizens have a direct voice in public decisions. The terms "citizen" and "public," and "involvement" and "participation" are often used interchangeably. While both are generally used to indicate a process through which citizens have a voice in public policy decisions, both have distinctively different meanings and convey little insight into the process they seek to describe.
Mize reveals that the term "citizen participation" and it's relationship to public decision-making has evolved without a general consensus regarding either it's meaning nor it's consequences Mize, Many agencies or individuals choose to exclude or minimize public participation in planning efforts claiming citizen participation is too expensive and time consuming.
Yet, many citizen participation programs are initiated in response to public reaction to a proposed project or action. However, there are tangible benefits that can be derived from an effective citizen involvement program.
Cogan and Sharpep. Information and ideas on public issues; Public Support for planning decisions; Avoidance of protracted conflicts and costly delays; Reservoir of good will which can carry over to future decisions; and Spirit of cooperation and trust between the agency and the public.
All of these benefits are important to the Forest Service in its planning efforts, particularly the last three. Recent forest management decisions have led to prolonged court cases and a general lack of trust among many people with respect to the Forest Service.
Decision-making Structures In discussing the theory of public participation, it is useful to review broad theories of decision-making structures. They conclude that public decisions are increasingly being influenced by technology. Two broad decision-making structures are defined and analyzed: Technocracy or the technocratic approach is defined as the application of technical knowledge, expertise, techniques, and methods to problem solving.
Democracy, as defined by DeSario and Langton, refers to citizen involvement activities in relation to government planning and policy making DeSario and Langton, p. These approaches are described in more detail below.
THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society. The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or . THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION. Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups. 3 Explain How Multiple Conditions And Or Disabilities May Impact On Individuals Opportunity To Participate In A Range Of Activities. Support individuals with multiple conditions and/or disabilities Describe possible multiple conditions and/or disabilities that individuals may have. Patients with multiple conditions and/or disabilities have two or more disabling conditions that affect.
Technocratic Decision Making The technocratic approach to decision-making has historically been applied in most Forest Service decisions. Strong arguments can be made in favor of a technocratic decision approach.
A key argument is that trained staff "experts" are best suited to make complex technical decisions. Experts are increasingly becoming a part of our decision-making structures in both the public and private sectors DeSario and Langton, However, Nelkin concluded that scientific and technocratic approaches "not only failed to solve social problems but often contributed to them" Nelkin, The notion that the "cure is often worse than the disease" becomes increasingly important as the technology provides alternative solutions to public policy issues.
Techniques and methods applied by experts are most effective when considering technical decisions as opposed to value or mixed, decisions. Kantrowitz identified three separate types of policy decisions: Technical decisions rely on scientific techniques and extrapolations to determine the potential of "what is".
Value issues involve normative determinations of "what should be". Although scientific information can provide guidance with respect to value decisions, it is rarely the sole determinant DeSario and Langton, Natural resource management decisions frequently affect social values.
The technocratic approach to decision making is difficult to apply successfully to social problems because social goals are often complex, conflicting and unclear DeSario and Langton, p.
A growing number of Americans are becoming more skeptical of technology and its experts. One result of this skepticism is a heightened demand for greater citizen participation with respect to technological decisions DeSario and Langton, p.
As a result, technological progress will face increased public scrutiny as the deficiencies of technology and experts become more apparent.THE FALSE ALLURE OF GROUP SELECTION.
Human beings live in groups, are affected by the fortunes of their groups, and sometimes make sacrifices that benefit their groups. AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION:The Family, The School, Peer Groups, The Mass Media Introduction to Sociology Social Sciences Sociology.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both the original (native) and newly adopted (host) cultures. Historically speaking, acculturation is a direct change of one's culture through dominance over another's culture through either military or political.
THIS essay examines the idea of tolerance in our advanced industrial society. The conclusion reached is that the realization of the objective of tolerance would call for intolerance toward prevailing policies, attitudes, opinions, and the extension of tolerance to policies, attitudes, and opinions which are outlawed or .
The President's Environmental Youth Award is a recognition program for K students who conduct an environmental stewardship and community service project. One winner or group is recognized from each of EPA's 10 regions.
Range of Groups and Individuals Sample Essay 1. 1 Review the scope of groups and persons whose communicating needs must be addressed in ain occupation function. As Undertaking Manager it is portion of my occupation function to be able to pass on with a scope of groups and persons.