Although also known in Spain as Philip the Pious,  Philip's political reputation abroad has been largely negative — an 'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a 'miserable monarch,' whose 'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch —21 and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War —48 through an initially extremely successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, and ensure he avoided the same fate as Carlos.
Merchants, women even, coming and going in perfect safety, as in a European town.
Life as safe, as large and easy as in Venice. Justice so fairly administered that one is tempted to believe that the Turks are turned Christians now, and that the Christians are turned Turks. Ottoman embassies were sent to France, with the Ottoman embassy to France led by Hayreddin Barbarossaand the Ottoman embassy to France led by representatives of Suleiman.
Combined operations Edit Suleiman ordered Barbarossa to put his fleet at the disposition of Francis I to attack Genoa and the Milanese.
Treaties, or capitulations, were passed between the two countries starting in and The catastrophic defeat in the Conquest of Tunis at the hands of Andrea Doria motivated the Ottoman Empire to enter into a formal alliance with France. These capitulations allowed the French to obtain important privileges, such as the security of the people and goods, extraterritoriality, freedom to transport and sell goods in exchange for the payment of the selamlik and customs fees.
These capitulations would in effect give the French a near trade monopoly in the Orient.
Foreign vessels had to trade with Turkey under the French banner, after the payment of a percentage of their trade. A French embassy and a Christian chapel were established in the area of Galata in Constantinople, and commercial privileges were also given to French merchants in the Turkish Empire.
Through the capitulations ofthe French received the privilege to trade freely in all Ottoman ports. InSuleiman sent Francis Igold pieces, so that he could form a coalition with England and German states against Charles V.
InFrancis asked for another 1 million ducats. To this objective, next summer, he [the King of France] with send the military force he is preparing to recover what it unjustly occupied by the Duke of Savoyand from there, to attack the Genoese.
This king Francis I strongly prays sir Haradin, who has a powerful naval force as well as a convenient location [Tunisia], to attack the island of Corsica and other lands, locations, cities, ships and subjects of Genoa, and not to stop until they have accepted and recognized the king of France.
The King, besides the above land force, will additionally help with his naval force, which will comprise at least 50 vessels, of which 30 galleysand the rest galeasses and other vessels, accompanied by one of the largest and most beautiful carracks that ever was on the sea.
This fleet will accompany and escort the army of sir Haradin, which will also be refreshed and supplied with food and ammunition by the King, who, by these actions, will be able to achieve his aims, for which he will be highly grateful to sir Haradin. Furthermore, he will recognize this blessing, and send tribute and pension to the Grand Signor to reward him for the financial support he will have provided to the King, as well as the support of his navy which will be fully assisted by the King [of France].
He is known to have sent at least one letter to the Protestant princes of Germany to encourage them to ally with Francis I against Charles V. Italian War of —French History. Important events, famous birthdays and historical deaths from our searchable today in history archives. 1st battle of Bouvines - King Philip II of France vs Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV and King John of England; as a result John lost Normandy and his other possessions in France (hence his nickname John "Lackland").
Spurred by religious zeal, King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France (known as Philip Augustus) ended their conflict with each other to lead a new crusade. The death of Henry in , however, meant the English contingent came under the command of his successor, King Richard I of England (known as Richard the Lionheart).
King Philip II of France supported Philip's claim, whereas King Richard of England supported his nephew Otto. [ 13 ] Pope Innocent was determined to prevent the continued unification of Sicily and the Holy Roman Empire under one monarch [ 14 ] and seized the opportunity to extend his influence.
Definitions of Philip_II_of_Spain, synonyms, antonyms, derivatives of Philip_II_of_Spain, analogical dictionary of Philip_II_of_Spain (English).
Dec 16, · The rebel barons, faced with a powerful king, turned to Louis, son and heir apparent of King Philip II of France and grandson-in-law of King Henry II of England.
(May ) John escaped to the Saxon capital of Winchester. Where the early period of relations between Spain and England were hindered by Philip's problems in the Mediterranean and the Netherlands, the later s were troubled by Philip's altered focus to Portugal and his attempt to unite the Iberian peninsula.