The last thirty years have given us a new version of the history of the French Revolution, the most diverse and hostile schools having contributed to it. The philosopherTaine, drew attention to the affinity between the revolutionary and what he calls the classic spirit, that is, the spirit of abstraction which gave rise to Cartesianism and produced certain masterpieces of French literature. Moreover he admirably demonstrated the mechanism of the local revolutionary committees and showed how a daring Jacobin minority was able to enforce its will as that of "the people".
Lecture 13 The French revolution Revolution: The Radical Stage, The proof necessary to convict the enemies of the people is every kind of evidence, either material or moral or verbal or written. Every citizen has the right to seize conspirators and counter-revolutionaries and to arraign them before magistrates.
He is required to denounce them when he knows of them. Such a policy ran counter to the bourgeois aspirations of the National Assembly. The sans-culottes demanded that the revolutionary government immediately increase wages, fix prices, end food shortages, punish hoarders and most important, deal with the existence of counter-revolutionaries.
In terms of social ideals the sans-culottes wanted laws to prevent extremes of both wealth and property. Their vision was of a nation of small shopkeepers and small farmers. They favored a democratic republic in which the voice of the common man could be heard.
In this respect, their ideology falls into line with that of Thomas Painethe English radical who argued that the best form French revolution government was the one which governed least: In other words, and this is important to grasp, the social and economic ideas of the sans-culottes were politicized by the Revolution itself.
The result of this journee was the radicalization of the Revolution. Louis and Marie Antoinette were forced to flee the Tuileries and took refuge in the Legislative Assembly itself. The royal family was placed under house arrest, and lived rather comfortably, but the king could not perform any of his political functions.
Although the revolutionaries had drafted a constitution, now they had no monarch. By September, Paris was in turmoil. Fearing counter-revolution, the sans-culottes destroyed prisons because they believed they were secretly sheltering conspirators.
More than one thousand people were killed. Street fights broke out everywhere and barricades were set up in various quarters of the city. On September 21st and 22nd,the monarchy was officially abolished and a republic established.
The 22nd of September, was now known as day one of the year one. From this time on, the Revolution had no recourse but to move forward. After the execution of Louis, the National Assembly, now known as the National Convention, faced enormous problems.
There was price inflation, continued food shortages, and various peasant rebellions against the Revolution occurred across the countryside.
France was close to civil war. Meanwhile, the revolutionaries found themselves not only at war with Austria and Prussia, but with Holland, Spain and Great Britain. As the Revolution stumbled under the weight of foreign war and civil war, the revolutionary leadership grew more radical.
Up to Junemoderate reformers had dominated the National Convention. These were the Girondins, men who favored a decentralized government in which the various provinces or departments would determine their own affairs. The Girondins also opposed government interference in the economy.
In Junefactional disputes with the Convention resulted in the replacement of the Girondins with the Jacobins, a far more radical group. The Jacobins and Girondins were both liberal and bourgeois, but the Jacobins desired a centralized government in which they would hold key positionsParis as the national capital, and temporary government control of the economy.
The Jacobin platform managed to win the support of the sans-culottes. The Jacobins were tightly organized, well-disciplined and convinced that they alone were responsible for saving and "managing" the Revolution from this point forward.
On June 22,80, armed sans-culottes surrounded the meeting halls of the National Convention and demanded the immediate arrest of the Girondin faction. The Convention yielded to the mob and 29 Girondin members of the Convention were arrested. The Jacobins now had firm control not only of the Convention, but the French nation as well.
They were the government. And they now had even more pressing problems: They lived, dreading the possibility that if they failed, so too would the Revolution. Only strong leadership could save the Revolution. The Committee of Public Safety assumed leadership, in April The Committee also ordered arrests and trials of counter-revolutionaries and imposed government authority across the nation.The French Revolution (–) was a period of ideological, political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French polity, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of republicanism, citizenship, and rights.
John Stuart Mill, a friend of Carlyle's, found himself caught up in other projects and unable to meet the terms of a contract he had signed with his publisher for a history of the French attheheels.com proposed that Carlyle produce the work instead; Mill even sent his friend a library of books and other materials concerning the Revolution, and by Carlyle was working furiously on the project.
The French Revolution was a revolution in France from to It led to the end of the monarchy, and to many attheheels.com Louis XVI was executed in The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November In , he became Emperor..
Before , France was ruled by the nobles and the Catholic attheheels.com . Nov 09, · The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. During this period, French citizens.
A short summary of History SparkNotes's The French Revolution (–). This free synopsis covers all the crucial plot points of The French Revolution (–).
Lecture 13 The French Revolution: The Radical Stage, The proof necessary to convict the enemies of the people is every kind of evidence, either material or moral or verbal or written.