Bob Harbort and Bob Brown College of Computing and Software Engineering Kennesaw State University Students are sometimes confused about the proper mix of original work and the work with citations of others that is appropriate in academic writing assignments. This can lead to problems ranging from a bad grade on the assignment to a charge of plagiarism. In the example below, we consider in detail an example of a properly written paragraph from an actual student paper used with the permission of its author on technical aspects of HIPAA, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
Although you should use these citation formats in this and other biology courses, specific formats vary considerably for individual journals.
If you are trying to publish a paper in a specific journal, you will be required to follow the format of that journal. That system will not be presented here, but you should expect to encounter it in your reading of the literature.
A complete listing of citation formats for published materials may be found in Huth et al Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussionwhenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e. Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly.
The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Typically, only the last name of the author s and the year of publication are given,e.
Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles.
The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblickin Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.
Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:Philosophie, dissertations - docbac.
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What to cite. The following examples require proper citation using an appropriate style manual such as the MLA. These are the main items that require citation.
If you use a direct quote that is common knowledge you do need to cite it. In an essay or research paper you need to include two types of citation. One is short form and the other is. Research Papers. Writing a Research Paper; Genre and the Research Paper; Choosing a Topic; Dangling Modifiers and How To Correct Them; Parallel Structure; Two-Part (Phrasal) Verbs (Idioms) Research and Citation.
Research and Citation Resources; Conducting Research. Conducting Research Introduction;.
Nov 15, · How to Cite Sources. In this Article: Article Summary In-Text, MLA, and Chicago Citation Help APA and Turabian Citation Help Gathering Information about Your Sources Placing In-Text Citations Writing a Reference Entry Community Q&A When you paraphrase or quote information from another source in a research paper, essay, or other written work, cite the original source of the Views: M.
Proper Citations using MLA Style. Examples of Proper MLA Citations. When to Cite Something: One of the key tasks of writing a research paper is gathering evidence to support your hypothesis.
You will depend on other people, both experts and actual historical figures, as sources for your evidence. An Example of Proper Writing from a Student Research Paper.
proper and complete citations to the external sources used, to show their suitability to the topic and allow an interested person to find them for further study.
If you are using An Example of Proper Writing from a Student Research Paper in a formal program, the authors would.