Email Copy Link Copied When you think of music--especially bands that tour the world--you probably assume that they have an amazing and inspiring origin story. We hear about bands where the members went to high school together, toiling away in a garage and learning the skills to become master musicians.
Advanced Search Abstract Insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances induces increased biofilm formation caused by a higher number of plaque-retentive sites.
The purpose of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of supra- and subgingival long-term biofilm formation on orthodontic bands. Ten patients five females and five males, aged Biofilm formation on 28 orthodontic bands was analyzed quantitatively with the Rutherford backscattering detection method, a scanning electron microscopy technique.
The biofilm formation for the supra- and subgingival surfaces was calculated from the grey values. Statistical analysis was performed with a mixed model with the patient as the random factor.
A biofilm was found on Despite the presence of supragingival biofilm, no mature subgingival biofilm was found on the tested orthodontic bands. Introduction The insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances induces an increase in plaque formation associated with a qualitative bacterial shift from aerobic to anaerobic microflora that endangers the integrity of hard and soft tissues.
In clinical studies, an increasing incidence of incipient carious lesions and generalized gingival inflammation have been found in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance therapy Boyd et al. The ecological changes in oral microbiota affect the composition, metabolic activity and pathogenicity of the biofilm Diamanti-Kipioti et al.
Furthermore, it has been observed that the material and surface properties of the bracket can influence bacterial attachment, plaque retaining capacity and microbial diversity Eliades et al.
After exposure of all hard and soft tissues to the oral cavity, an acquired pellicle is formed from adsorbed salivary biopolymers Hannig, This initial coating forms the interface between the surface and the colonizing microorganisms Busscher and van der Mei, ; Bos et al.
Initial bacterial colonization is a pre-condition for the development of a mature biofilm, a factor associated with the progression of tooth decay and periodontitis Liljemark and Bloomquist, Clinical studies have shown that the gingiva surrounding natural teeth has the potential to prevent subgingival biofilm formation and to respond to early biofilm accumulation Berglundh et al.
Protective mechanisms include structural components, such as a well-keratinized oral epithelium Berglundh et al. In a recent study, it was found that subgingival biofilm during initial bacterial colonization was absent around implant abutments, despite increased supragingival biofilm formation Heuer et al.
Orthodontic bands are also seated in supra- and subgingival areas. This seating can compromise the health of the surrounding periodontal tissues and can be associated with the occurrence of periodontopathogenic bacteria Diamanti-Kipioti et al. Consequently, gingival inflammation can be induced that causes gingival enlargement, which is largely reversible Alexander, ; Kouraki et al.
This gingival enlargement increases the amount of the subgingival surface. Little is known about the adherent subgingival environment around orthodontic bands and the potential of mucosal components to prevent long-term subgingival biofilm formation on these surfaces.
Therefore, the purpose of the present research was to perform a quantitative analysis of biofilm formation on supra- and subgingival surfaces of orthodontic bands, employing a scanning electron microscopy SEM technique.
The examination was performed with the understanding and written consent of each subject.
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Ten patients five females and five males, aged between 14 and 32 years, mean The exclusion criteria were systemic diseases, missing teeth in the permanent dentition, antibiotic therapy 6 weeks before removal of the appliance and a history of periodontal disease, excluding gingivitis and carious lesions.
Six weeks before removal of the orthodontic bands Ormco, Amersfoort, The Netherlandsparameters of oral hygiene were obtained. First, the approximal plaque index API was determined by probing of interdental spaces on the buccal sites of the upper left and lower right quadrants and the oral sites of the upper right and lower left quadrants Lange, Removal of plaque after probing was recorded as a positive finding.
The API was calculated by dividing the number of positive findings by the number of examined sites, resulting in a percentage index. Furthermore, the sulcus bleeding index SBI was determined by gently guiding a periodontal probe through the sulcus of the same examination sites as in the API Muehlemann and Son, The SBI was calculated by dividing the number of bleeding points by the number of probing sites, again resulting in a percentage index.
After removal of the first molar orthodontic bands using band-removing pliers, these were cleaned by rinsing with a sterile water solution and dried by air. Iatrogenic biofilm dislodgement during the removal process was avoided by placing the pliers only on supragingival attachments.
The photomicrographs were obtained after rotating each sample approximately 45 degrees, generating a total of eight photographs per sample. The RBSD photomicrographs allowed the detection of biofilm-coated surfaces.
Biofilm coverage was validated by using SEM with high magnification and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that allowed elemental characterization of the biofilm as an organic material. On the RBSD micrographs, plaque-covered surfaces appeared dark and non-covered surfaces bright Figure 1.
Plaque- and non-plaque-covered surfaces were differentiated on the basis of the grey values after conversion to a binary display Figure 2.
The extent of coverage with biofilm was calculated using surface analysis software Image J The demarcation line between supra- and subgingival regions was reproduced on casts manufactured 6 weeks prior to debonding. On these casts, the distances from the gingival margin to the occlusal border of the orthodontic bands were determined continuously by multiple measurements.
These distances were later transferred to the RBSD photomicrographs to reproduce the localization of supra- and subgingival surfaces.Introduction Manufactured bands now make up a major percentage of chart music today, not least of them Take That, Boyzone, Bad Boys inc., East 17 and other all-boy pop bands.
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