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Nomenclature[ edit ] The term Corded Ware culture German: Battle Axe culture, or Boat Axe culture, is named from its characteristic grave offering to males, a stone boat-shaped battle axe. Although a similar social organization and settlement pattern to the Beaker were adopted, the Corded Ware group lacked the new refinements made possible through trade and communication by sea and rivers.
Its wide area of distribution indicates rapid expansion at the assumed time of the dispersal of Indo-European languages.
Indeed, the Corded Ware culture was once presumed to be the Urheimat of the Proto-Indo-Europeans based on their possession of the horse and wheeled vehicles, apparent warlike propensities, wide area of distribution and rapid intrusive expansion at the assumed time of the dispersal of Indo-European languages.
Some archaeologists believed it sprang from central Europe while others saw an influence from nomadic pastoral societies of the steppes. The Globular Amphora culture stretched from central Europe to the Baltic sea, and emerged from the Funnelbeaker culture.
According to controversial radiocarbon dates, Corded Ware ceramic forms in single graves develop earlier in the area that is now Poland than in western and southern Central Europe. While honouring the possibilities of genetic research, this interpretation has been questioned by archaeologists as being too simple, as it ignores the complex processes involved in archaeological explanations.
In the western regions the transition to Corded Ware has been proposed to be a quick, smooth and internal change that occurred at the preceding Funnelbeaker culture, having its origin in the direction of eastern Germany.
However, today Corded Ware is now everywhere seen as intrusivethough not necessarily aggressively so, and coexisting with earlier indigenous cultures in many cases. It is possible that a more western Yamna population, or an earlier pre-Yamna steppe population may have migrated into central Europe, and future work may uncover more missing links in the chain of transmission of steppe ancestry.
Instead, our results show that the languages could have been introduced simply by strength of numbers: He focuses on both the effects on Indo-European languages that resulted from this contact and investigation of the pre-existing languages.
Relatively little is known about the Pre-Indo-European linguistic landscape of Europeexcept for Basqueas the "Indo-Europeanization" of Europe caused a largely unrecorded, massive linguistic extinction event, most likely through language shift.
Based on predecessors such as Yevgeny Yu. Gordon Childe he stressed the universal character of the innovations generally connected to the people of the Corded Ware such as a special mixture of farming and nomadic pastoralism, and the patrilineal and patriarchal structures connected to the latter.
He believes that speakers of Baltic languages may have played an important role in the diffusion of the Corded Ware culture. However, this view was modified, as some evidence of sedentary farming emerged. Traces of emmercommon wheat and barley were found at a Corded Ware site at Bronocice in south-east Poland.
Wheeled vehicles presumably drawn by oxen are in evidence, a continuation from the Funnelbeaker culture era. Sheep were kept more frequently in the western part of Switzerland due to the stronger Mediterranean influence.
Changes in slaughter age and animal size are possibly evidence for sheep being kept for their wool at Corded Ware sites in this region. However, in Sweden and also parts of northern Poland the graves were oriented north-south, men lay on their left side and women on the right side - both facing east.
Originally, there was probably a wooden construction, since the graves are often positioned in a line. This is in contrast with practices in Denmark where the dead were buried below small mounds with a vertical stratigraphy: Other types of burials are the niche-graves of Poland.
Grave goods for men typically included a stone battle axe. Pottery in the shape of beakers and other types are the most common burial gifts, generally speaking.
These were often decorated with cord, sometimes with incisions and other types of impressions. The approximately contemporary Beaker culture had similar burial traditions, and together they covered most of Western and Central Europe.
In Aprilit was reported that a deviant Corded Ware burial had been discovered in a suburb of Prague. The excavators suggested the grave may have been that of a "member of a so-called third gender, which were people either with different sexual orientation or transsexuals or just people who identified themselves differently from the rest of the society",  while media reports heralded the discovery of the world's first "gay caveman".
Other items of criticism were that someone buried in the Copper Age was not a " caveman " and that identifying the sex of skeletal remains is difficult and inexact. Subgroups[ edit ] Corded Ware culture[ edit ] The prototypal Corded Ware culture, German Schnurkeramikkultur, is found in Central Europe, mainly Germany and Poland, and refers to the characteristic pottery of the era: It is known mostly from its burials, and both sexes received the characteristic cord-decorated pottery.
Whether made of flax or hemp, they had rope. Single Grave term refers to a series of late Neolithic communities of the 3rd millennium BCE living in southern ScandinaviaNorthern Germanyand the Low Countries that share the practice of single burial, the deceased usually being accompanied by a battle-axe, amber beads, and pottery vessels.
Especially in the west Scandinavia and northern Germanythe drinking vessels have a protruding foot and define the Protruding-Foot Beaker culture PFB as a subset of the Single Grave culture. This section does not cite any sources.
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